The largest kidney stone removed from the patient was at its widest point 13 cm, meanwhile the diameter of the urethra in men is about 10 mm and in women 6 mm. Big stones cannot be disposed of with urine, and the excretion of smaller stones is so painful that patients writhe in pain.

Which diseases accelerate kidney stones forming?

There are chemicals in human urine that can form kidney stones under favorable conditions. Excess of these substances may be the result of other diseases, e.g. gout, osteoporosis, gastrointestinal diseases. Stones can also form as a result of a decrease in urine flow, e.g. due to benign prostatic hyperplasia and anatomical defects of the urinary tract. Also, cancer and immobilization of the patient for a long time can promote the development of kidney stones. Therefore, it is important to properly treat these diseases and a proper diet for them.

What to eat and how to prevent kidney stones?

Remember, you should not abuse vegetables and fruits containing oxalates such as spinach, rhubarb, sorrel, beets, and their consumption is best combined with calcium-rich products, i.e. with milk and its products. Calcium binds oxalates in the gastrointestinal tract, due to which the difficult ones are absorbed into the blood and penetrate them less into the urine, where they could become the building blocks of stones. For vegetables, béchamel sauce made of milk or feta cheese will be perfect, and for rhubarb pudding. However, you should know that the abuse of ready-made calcium-containing preparations also promotes the formation of stones. The cause of kidney stones is also urate. Their excess in urine may be caused by too much meat consumed and by taking high doses of vitamin C. Obesity is also a problem. A diet too rich in table salt, animal protein, and fats can also be dangerous. In addition, people who drink too little water may have insufficient daily urine production, and thus an increased risk of developing kidney stones.

How much liquid drink in case of kidney stones?

An adult needs 2 – 2.5 liters of water a day, of which 20% will be found in solid foods, so about 1.5 – 2 liters remain to be drunk. It should be remembered that thirst is not a good measure of hydration, because it appears only when the body is already 2% dehydrated. Adequate fluid supply ensures that the amount of urine produced and excreted is sufficient to ensure that urinary flow is at the right level. As a result, the stones are harder to form and smaller ones are easier to wash out. It is also important to drink water before bedtime. Thanks to this, we dilute the urine, which thickens at night, because usually we do not excrete it.

How to deal with kidney stones?

The best solution is to consume low-mineralized mineral water. Drinks with larger amounts of oxalates, e.g. rhubarb compote, strong tea, cocoa, blackberry or gooseberry juice should be limited. Appropriate hydration should be remembered by physically active people, regularly running, exercising in the gym, etc. During physical effort, the body loses 1 or even 2 liters of water per hour. Research shows that we do not always supplement this defect. We drink when we feel thirsty, but often less than we have lost. The difference can be even 0.5 liters. If we exercise every day and every day we have a shortage of only 100-200 ml, after a week it is already 1 liter of water, which we lack. Especially people with a tendency to nephrolithiasis should supplement fluids systematically and “by force”. Similarly, when we relax in the tropics. Then we have to drink more. This is the way how to prevent kidney stones.

What to do when the kidney sand is painful?

Sometimes, a general urine test reveals numerous compound crystals that can form kidney stones. They are so small that they were spontaneously expelled from the body without causing any symptoms. However, this is the first signal that the person is prone to urolithiasis. Your doctor may recommend additional tests to determine the cause of your tendency to form stones. Then choose the right diet. Herbal preparations may be helpful in preventing kidney stones. In pharmacies are available agents containing a composition of herbs with anti-inflammatory and diuretic effect. Indicated are in people who may have a tendency to stone formation, with the presence of kidney sand and as an auxiliary in the treatment of kidney stones.

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